The publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an essential building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is a direct reflection of the quality of work of the author and institutions that support them. Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. It is therefore important to agree on standards of expected ethical behaviour. The authors should ensure they write entirely original works, and if they have used the work and/or words of others than it needs to be appropriately cited or quoted. An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication.